Argon user guidebook

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This page collects most of the Argon user guide articles as a single page.

Introduction to ARGON[edit | edit source]

Argon
Argon single.jpg
Device type Servo motor drive
Model number ARGON-4K000
Supported motors AC, DC, BLDC, Linear
Control modes Position, Velocity, Torque
Status Active production, started 2013
Electrical
DC supply voltage 84 - 380 VDC
AC supply voltage 85 - 264 VAC
Output current range 0.1 - 16A
Setpoint signals Pulse and direction, PWM, Analog, SimpleMotion V2
Feedback devices Quadrature encoder
General
Configuration tool Granity
Web site Granite Devices ARGON
Compliance CE (EMC & LVD directives)
3D model Download-icon.png IGES & STEP
PDF version of ARGON flyer. Download.

Argon is a digital servo drive designed for driving AC/BLDC and DC servo motors in various operating modes.

Features[edit | edit source]

State of the Art[edit | edit source]

  • High dynamic range torque control
  • Wide range motor support, from DC, BLDC, AC and Linear, from 50 W to 1500 W
  • Sophisticated dead-time distortion elimination
  • Flexible feedback device port supporting incremental, serial and analog encoders and resolvers ¹
  • Dual CPU architecture with dedicated open source ARM CPU for user functionality
  • High functional density and cost efficiency: all features included in the standard model
  • 3-level PWM output with reduced motor heating

Control[edit | edit source]

Protections & Ruggedness[edit | edit source]

  • 3-way Safe torque off with motor braking
  • Prevent machine damage via I²t (motor temperature modeling), blocked motion and tracking error detection
  • Industry leading ruggedness: over current, short circuit, over voltage, under voltage and over temperature protections, internally fused, data/communication error detection
  • Internal AC inrush current limiter and surge protection
  • High tolerance for fluctuations in AC supply voltage
  • Warranty 24 months

¹) At the moment only incremental encoder feedback is supported, more devices supported in upcoming firmware upgrades

Applications[edit | edit source]

  • Industrial servo control
  • CNC
  • Precision robotics
  • Spindles
  • Semiconductor handling
  • Food & white goods

Functionality and specifications[edit | edit source]

See main article Argon specifications.

Documentation & user guides[edit | edit source]

See the main article Argon setup guide.

Availability[edit | edit source]

Shipping worldwide at Granite Devices web shop.


Set-up overview & first connection[edit | edit source]

Contents

This is the official and latest setup guide of Argon (servo drive). Read it through before installing or operating Argon.

NOTE: This guide attempts to be as complete and precise as humanly possible, however it can never be perfect. Writers of this guide are not responsible if possible damages or losses caused by mistakes or lacks of this guide.

IMPORTANT: Argon drive should be installed and operated only by qualified electricians. Dangerous voltages and mechanics are involved and possibility of severe injury or even death is possible in case of installation or usage errors.


Reading the guide[edit | edit source]

Read trough the guide by following the outline on the top right side of the page and follow the hyper links to subtopics provided in the articles. Many useful and important key points are presented as:

Articles containing safety & equipment damage related information of Argon[edit | edit source]

In addition to other documentation, make sure you have carefully read and understood all of the pages containing safety and equipment damage warnings before operating the device:

Argon introduction[edit | edit source]

Argon is a servo motor drive designed by Granite Devices. If you are not familiar with the features and specifications of the drive, see following articles:

The setup process[edit | edit source]

Step1 collectthings.png

Read the page List of things needed for details.


Step2 granityconnection.png

Connect drive to PC with SimpleMotion V2 USB adapter and Granity to test connection, upgrade firmware if necessary and to learn Granity. If you're already familiar with all this, you may skip this step. Read the article Making the first Granity connection


Step3 wiring.png

Carefully do the full wiring of the servo system. Consult an qualified electrician if necessary as dangerous voltages will be present. Before powering up, triple check everything by using multimeter to find short circuits. Read the main article Wiring.


Step4 tuningbaremotor.png

Power-up the system and connect again with Granity. Now set-up the motor to work as intended. See the main article Drive parameterization. If you already have a working configuration to your motor model, you may just load the settings file to the drive.


Step5 tuningmachine.png

After motor and drive are fully functional, connect motor to the mechanical load and find the optimum velocity or position control gains. Read the main article Servo motor tuning guide.

Troubleshooting[edit | edit source]

In case of troubles, refer to the articles in general troubleshooting category and Argon troubleshooting category.


List of items needed[edit | edit source]

The list of necessary things to build a working servo system with Argon
Optional but highly recommended items
Needed for high current motors (>4A average)
  • A cooling fan and/or additional heat sinks. See list of compatible heat sinks here.
Tools needed
  • Screwdrivers
  • Wire cutter
Skills needed
  • Qualified electrician skills (license to make mains AC connections)
  • Basic knowledge of servo systems

See also Mating connectors and accessories.


Setting device bus address[edit | edit source]

All SimpleMotion V2 compatible devices have a settable address that identifies the device on a multidrop communication bus. Each device sharing the same bus must have an unique address number to make error free communication possible. For example configuring bus address is required to establish a connection with Granity software.

When accessing drive through SimpleMotion V2 bus, each device in the bus should be assigned to different address between 1 to 32. Device address is a sum of hardware setting and software parameter SimpleMotion bus address offsetSMO (IONI only). The address of device is determined at the moment of logic voltage power on and will become by sum of hardware setting and SMO.

Argon[edit | edit source]

DIP switch of Argon. In this case the DIP has value 01001.

Argon (servo drive) has a 5 channel DIP switch that sets the address. The table below lists all possible settings of DIP switch settings. Switches 1-4 set the address and the switch number 5 sets termination on or off.

Address Bus termination DIP switch setting (switches from 1 to 5)
255 (firmware upgrade mode) Off 00000
255 (firmware upgrade mode) On 00001
1 Off 00010
1 On 00011
2 Off 00100
2 On 00101
3 Off 00110
3 On 00111
4 Off 01000
4 On 01001
5 Off 01010
5 On 01011
6 Off 01100
6 On 01101
7 Off 01110
7 On 01111
8 Off 10000
8 On 10001
9 Off 10010
9 On 10011
10 Off 10100
10 On 10101
11 Off 10110
11 On 10111
12 Off 11000
12 On 11001
13 Off 11010
13 On 11011
14 Off 11100
14 On 11101
15 Off 11110
15 On 11111

Ioni/Ionicube[edit | edit source]

When chaining multiple IONICUBE 1X motherboards (where all of them have address 1), it is necessary to utilize software parameter SimpleMotion bus address offsetSMO. Procedure for setting unique address for each device with SMO:

  1. Disconnect or unpower all other devices that the ones with already unique address (i.e. have only one IONICUBE connected to SM bus, or powered on)
  2. Connect to drive with Granity
  3. Adjust SMO parameter value so that device will receive a desired bus address. I.e. if using IONICUBE 1X, set SMO values 0, 1, 2, 3 to the different drives (drive addresses will become 1, 2, 3, 4). Or when IONICUBE (4 axis) is being used, set SMO values of drives on the first board 0, second board 4, third 8 etc (drive addresses will become 1 - 12).
  4. Save settings, disconnect and repeat the procedure for all drives.

Same goes for chaining multiple IONICUBE 4 axis boards. However as base addresses of the drives on 4 axis boards are 1, 2, 3 and 4, one needs to increment SMO parameter by 4 on each chained IONICUBE. I.e. all the drives on first board should have SMO=0, the second SMO=4 and the third SMO=8 etc.

Bus termination[edit | edit source]

Proper configuration of devices on a bus
SimpleMotion V2 bus must be terminated for reliable communication. This means that last device of the bus must have termination DIP switch set to On position.

Bus may be also alternatively terminated with external 100 ohm resistor connected between RS485_A and RS485_B wires at the end of bus cable chain (see SimpleMotion V2 port). If DIP switch termination is used, then drive internal 100 ohm resistor is connected across the A and B wires.

Stub[edit | edit source]

If an E-stop button is connected with RJ45 cable after the last device, a bus stub is formed. Stub must not be longer than 30 cm or 1 foot to ensure reliable bus operation.

Methods to eliminate the stub on SimpleMotion V2 port cable E-stop cable if longer than 30cm E-stop cable is needed:

  • Cut the RS485_A and RS485_B wires from the cable near connector, this ends the RS485 bus next to connector and minimizes stub
  • Alternatively, connect termination resistor at end of RS485_A and RS485_B wires and set DIP switch termination off

Troubleshooting[edit | edit source]

Following errors may cause unreliable connection:

  • If two or more devices have same address on a single bus
  • If termination is missing or is present multiple times
  • If bus stub is too long



Making the first Granity connection[edit | edit source]

Follow the instructions to make the first Granity connection to Argon drive.

Preparations[edit | edit source]

  1. Download and install the Granity software. Lates version is downloadable from the link: Granity software for windows (approx 15 MB)
  2. Connect PE of J4 connector to protective earth. After that wire 24 VDC power supply to Argon's J3 connector, however do not power up yet.
  3. Set Argon DIP switches to give an bus address to the device.
  4. Connect Argon J2.1 connector to SimpleMotion V2 USB adapter with a straight Ethernet cable and plug USB adapter to computer.
  5. Power up the 24 VDC power. Some leds should start blinking at the drive (more about blinking sequences).
  6. Launch Granity software and:
    1. Go to Connect tab
    2. Ensure that "SimpleMotion V2 Adapter" is selected from drowdown list called Communication interface device. (note 1)
    3. Click Connect to drive
    4. Once list of connected drives pop up, select the one you connected and click Open

Now if everything has gone well, you should see information like drive model and serial number on the Connect tab. Connection has been successfully tested and drive may be disconnected to proceed with next setup step.

Note 1) If multiple choices are named as "SimpleMotion V2 Adapter", then try each of them to find the correct one. Also if no adapters found, try launching Granity again as the list updates only at start-up.




Wiring overwiev[edit | edit source]

Mechanical installation and cooling[edit | edit source]

A proper Argon installation orientation and spacing with optional heat sinks and an optional cooling fan. For high power application, replacing also the internal fuse may be necessary.
Argon drives should be installed vertically (J5 connector up) with at least 50 mm free air space between the device surfaces and possible cabinet walls to allow heat transfer along the heat sink side of the device.

Cooling may be further by mounting additional heat sinks to the bottom of the device and/or using a fan blowing air from bottom to up. If fan is used, it should have dust filter to prevent dust inside the drives.

Such additional cooling measures are typically necessary only when average motor current is higher than 4 Amperes peak value of sine. Most of position control servo systems run cool enough without additional cooling as the load is highly varying and the average output power is low. In any case, it is safe to experiment without cooling as drive's over temperature protection will shut down the drive in case of overheating.

Wiring overview[edit | edit source]

Wiringoverview notitle.png

A working test setup wiring of Argon. Just connection to a computer and AC power is needed to operate the drive and motor with Granity or other SimpleMotion V2 app. Note: emergency stopping, enhanced grounding, fuse and all recommended EMI filters are not installed.
A close-up of the test test wiring. Note: emergency stopping, enhanced grounding, fuse and all recommended EMI filters are not installed.
The minimum wiring for a servo system (after configuration state)
  1. Safety earthing to port J4 and preferably to the Argon case
  2. 24 VDC wiring to port J3
  3. Safe torque off and enable signals to port J2. See how.
  4. Motion controller wiring:
    1. if pulse & direction, analog, PWM or quadrature setpoint signal used, wire signals to port J5
    2. if setpoint delivered over SimpleMotion V2 bus, then a cable from SimpleMotion V2 compatible communication interface device to J2
  5. Axis limit switches wired to port J5
  6. Feedback device wiring to port J1
  7. Motor connection to port J4
  8. AC input power to port J4. Use an external fuse with this input.
Optional wiring
  1. AC Power line filter on the wire entering J4
  2. Wiring of optional braking resistor to port J4
  3. Motor solenoid brake wiring to port J3
Additionally following are required for drive configuration with Granity
  1. A cable from SimpleMotion V2 USB adapter to port J2

Ports and connectors[edit | edit source]

Argon front side connections

Argon side connections & DIP switches

J1 feedback device port[edit | edit source]

J1 connector type is 15 pin female D-Sub and should be mated with 15 pin male D-Sub counterpart.

For pin-out and connection examples, see the main article J1 connector wiring.

J2.1 and J2.2 Simplemotion & E-stop ports[edit | edit source]

J2.1 and J2.2 are RJ45 type connectors and mates with standard Cat 5 & 6 Ethernet cables. Both of these ports are connected pin-to-pin parallel to allow chaining of Argon devices.

See the main article SimpleMotion V2 port.

J3 24V power and motor brake port[edit | edit source]

J3 is a 3 pole terminal block type connector used for supplying 24VDC to drive and optionally controlling motor solenoid brake.

See the main article J3 connector wiring.

J4 power & motor port[edit | edit source]

J4 is a 10 pole terminal block connector for several functions: earthing, AC power input, motor output, regenerative resistor output and HV DC link sharing.

See the main article J4 connector wiring.

J5 Inputs/Outputs[edit | edit source]

J5 Is a 26 pin IDC connector located on the side of Argon. The connector serves as general purpose I/O with setpoint signal inputs featuring: limit & home switch inputs, status indicator outputs, analog, pulse and direction, quadrature or PWM types of setpoint inputs and secondary feedback device input.

See the main article Argon I/O connector electrical interfacing for pin-out and wiring guide.

J6 Expansion slot[edit | edit source]

This slot is reserved for Argon add-on card that may be installed inside the drive.

DIP Switches[edit | edit source]

DIP switches serves as address selector when connecting the drive to SimpleMotion V2 bus or Granity.

See the main article Setting device bus address.

Mating parts[edit | edit source]

See list of Argon mating connectors and accessories

Wiring recommendations[edit | edit source]

Read general wiring recommendations articles at:

Basic wiring scheme[edit | edit source]

Before wiring, be sure to read through the main articles regarding J1-J5 ports.

Connecting multiple drives[edit | edit source]

Note this drawing does not include wiring to motor (J4), motor brake (J3), feedback device (J1), controller (J5) and AC power input circuity.

Argon wiring multiple.png

Wiring of single drive[edit | edit source]

Argonwiringoverview.png

Earthing[edit | edit source]

Connecting a protective earth to Argon drive is the most crucial single connection to be made. Argon has two earthing methods:

  • Earthing through the J4 PE terminal (always required)
  • Earthing the device case (highly recommended and may be required by regulations in some countries)


Earthing through the J4 PE terminal[edit | edit source]

This is a mandatory connection. Follow the Argon wiring instructions.

Earthing the device case[edit | edit source]

Earthing points of the case
Proper earthing wire installation with toothed locking washers ensure an electrical contact through surface coatings.
Attaching protective earth wire to the case can provide much lower impedance PE connection compared to the J4 terminal making it highly recommended addition to grounding through J4. Using both of the methods provides redundancy in the case of one method fails.

Parts needed:

  • 1pcs wire ring terminal with 4-5.5 mm hole with at least 20 Ampere capable earthing conductor
  • 2pcs M4 serrated/toothed lock washers
  • 1pcs M4 screw, 6-8 mm thread length

Verifying connection[edit | edit source]

After wiring, verify electrical connection by using a resistance meter between the case PE wire and J4 PE terminal while J4 PE wire is not connected.

J1 connector wiring[edit | edit source]

This page lists most common wiring schemes to Argon feedback device ports. See also the main article Argon user guide/Wiring.

Pin-out[edit | edit source]

J1 connector type is 15 pin female D-Sub and should be mated with 15 pin male D-Sub counterpart. Many of the J1 pins have dual functions. The operating mode of pin is determined by feedback device mode selected from Granity.

J1closeup.png

Pin # Pin name Electrical type (in most feedback device modes) Alternate electrical type (in some feedback device modes) Connection with various feedback devices
Shell PE Earth/case Feedback cable shield
1 HALL_W Digital input W Hall sensor input, phase W
2 HALL_V Digital input V Hall sensor input, phase V
3 HALL_U Digital input U Hall sensor input, phase U
4 E+ Differential input E+ Differential output E+
5 B- Differential input B- Analog input B+ Quadrature encoder (B channel)/SinCos/resolver input
6 B+ Differential input B+ Analog input B-
7 A- Differential input A- Analog input A- Quadrature encoder (A channel)/SinCos/resolver input
8 A+ Differential input A+ Analog input A+
9 5V_OUT Encoder supply 5V output Encoder power supply
10 GND Encoder supply ground
11 E- Differential input E- Differential output E-
12 D- Differential input D- Differential output D- Resolver coil drive
13 D+ Differential input D+ Differential output D+
14 C- Differential input C- Quadrature encoder index channel (Z channel)
15 C+ Differential input C+

J1 wiring guide[edit | edit source]

Incremental encoder[edit | edit source]

Differential[edit | edit source]

Differential outputs (RS422 electrical standard) of encoder provides a good EMI immunity and supports long cables with high speed signals. Typical differential encoder has 6-8 wires:

  • Ground
  • Supply
  • Channel A+
  • Channel A-
  • Channel B+
  • Channel B-
  • Index+ channel (optional), typically called Z+ or I+
  • Index- channel (optional), typically called Z- or I-

The negative outputs have the inverted (or mirror image) signal of the positive outputs.

J1 pin # Pin name Pin function Encoder wire
Shell PE Earth/case Cable shield
5 B- Differential input B- Channel B-
6 B+ Differential input B+ Channel B+
7 A- Differential input A- Channel A-
8 A+ Differential input A+ Channel A+
9 5V_OUT Encoder supply 5V output Encoder supply
10 GND Encoder supply ground Encoder ground
14 C- Differential input C- Index- (Z- or I-) channel
15 C+ Differential input C+ Index+ (Z+ or I+) channel

Pins not listed in the table are left open or used for other functions such as Hall sensor.

Single ended[edit | edit source]

Single ended output type is usually one of the following:

  • Open collector outputs
  • TTL outputs
  • CMOS outputs

Typical single ended encoder has 4-5 wires:

  • Ground
  • Supply
  • Channel A
  • Channel B
  • Index channel (optional), typically called Z or I channel
J1 pin # Pin name Pin function Encoder wire
Shell PE Earth/case Cable shield
6 B+ Differential input B+ Channel B
8 A+ Differential input A+ Channel A
9 5V_OUT Encoder supply 5V output Encoder supply
10 GND Encoder supply ground Encoder ground
15 C+ Differential input C+ Index (Z) channel

Pins not listed in the table are left open or used for other functions such as Hall sensor.

Hall sensor[edit | edit source]

Some AC/BLDC/Linear motors are equipped with a Hall sensor which allows faster drive initialization after power-on as phase search can be skipped. Hall sensor is also necessary in the case where motor is not able to move freely in both directions when powered on (i.e. if axis rests at the end of mechanical travel or is vertical axis).

Many Hall sensors have differential outputs (non-inverted and inverted channels, just like differential encoder), however Argon has only single ended Hall sensor inputs which supports both output types (single ended and differential).

It is possible to connect a Hall sensor together with other feedback devices to the same port. In such case supply pins may be shared between multiple FBD's.

J1 pin # Pin name Electrical function Hall sensor wiring
Shell PE Earth/case Feedback cable shield
1 HALL_W Hall sensor input, phase W Hall sensor W (if differential, then W+ channel)
2 HALL_V Hall sensor input, phase V Hall sensor V (if differential, then V+ channel)
3 HALL_U Hall sensor input, phase U Hall sensor U (if differential, then U+ channel)
9 5V_OUT Encoder supply 5V output Hall sensor supply
10 GND Encoder supply ground Hall sensor ground

Pins not listed in the table are left open or used for other functions such as Hall sensor.

J2 SimpleMotion v2 port[edit | edit source]

SM V2 multidrop bus with E-stop functionality
RJ45 cable compatible with Ethernet and SimpleMotion V2

SimpleMotion V2 communication link and Argon drives use RJ45 connectors and cables as physical connection standard.

RJ45 is well known from Ethernet connectors and same cables may be used with SimpleMotion wiring.

Bus properties[edit | edit source]

SimpleMotion V2 uses RS485 electrical serial communication standard for all data transfer. Some main benefits of using RS485 are:

  • Multidrop buses possible (up to 32 devices in single serial link)
  • High reliability due to differential signaling
  • High data rates and long cable lengths possible
  • Easy to interface even from smallest microcontrollers with UART
  • Low wire count, only 2 signal wires + ground needed
  • Bidirectional data transfer (receive & transmit) in one wire pair
  • Cabling with standard RJ45 Ethernet cables

As default SimpleMotion V2 uses 460800 BPS bitrate and can deliver over 1000 motion commands per second. With 4 MBPs speed the bus can deliver up to 20 000 motion commands per second by using the "fast update cycle" SimpleMotion function.

PC connection[edit | edit source]

SimpleMotion V2 devices can be controlled and configured from PC computer by the help of compatible RS485 adapter. The most common way is to use USB to SimpleMotion V2 adapters such as:

  • SimpleMotion V2 USB adapter
  • DIY SimpleMotion V2 adapter
  • Compatible third party adapters
    • PCI-e / PCI RS485 adapters with at least 460.2k bps speed support
    • Ethernet RS485 adapters with at least 460.2k bps speed support.
      • Moxa NPort 5xxx devices have been verified to work reliably with SimpleMotion through their virtual COM port over Ethernet driver.
    • FTDI USB chip based RS485 devices

RS485 settings[edit | edit source]

SimpleMotion uses the most common configuration of RS485 bus:

  • Serial port settings
    • 460800 bps
    • 1 start bit
    • 1 stop bit
    • no parity bit
    • no flow control
  • Bus physical construction
    • 100-130 ohm termination resistors at both ends of the RS485 line
    • Biasing resistors at the one or two ends of the RS485 line (600-800 ohm pull-down to GND on B line and 600-800 ohm pull-up to 5V on A line)
    • For more info, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RS-485

Using SMV2 port as E-stop & Enable input[edit | edit source]

In SMV2 compatible drives, the SMV2 connector acts also as emergency stop or Safe torque off input. User may connect a e-stop button directly at the end of device chain to gain reliable stopping mechanism for all linked devices.

Wiring with SMV2BRK[edit | edit source]

SMV2USB adapter and SMV2BRK bus termination board

The preferred method to wire STO and Enable signals to SM bus is to add a SMV2BRK break out board at the end of bus chain. SMV2BRK acts as RS485 termination resistor and a wire terminal for STO and Enable signals with easy interfacing to switches.

For commissioning of SMV2BRK, see it's dedicated SMV2BRK page.

Wiring with IONICUBE devices[edit | edit source]

IONICUBE motherboards have on broad routing from RJ45 connector to user accessible wire terminals. When using these motherboards, see IONI & IONICUBE user guide for wiring.

Wiring with bare RJ45 cable[edit | edit source]

To terminate SMV2 bus and connect switches without SMV2BRK, see SimpleMotion V2 termination with bare cable.

Using SMV2BRK as SimpleMotion bus terminator[edit | edit source]

SMV2BRK boards
SM V2 multidrop bus with E-stop functionality

SMV2BRK is a product name for for SimpleMotion V2 break out board. The purpose of SMV2BRK is to:

  • Terminate the RS485 bus (be the last device on the bus with proper termination impedance)
  • Break out the enable and STO signals for easy wiring through wire terminals

Before using SMV2BRK, be sure to understand SimpleMotion V2 port.

Functionality[edit | edit source]

Dimensions and pin-out of SMV2BRK

SMV2BRK has two connectors X1 (SimpleMotion V2 RJ45 connector) and X2 (wire terminal for Enable and STO signals).

STO
Depending on drive model, they have one or two Safe Torque Off inputs that prevent drive producing any torque to motor if activated. STO has high reliability and is hard-wired to drive power stage making it very reliable aid for machine safety. If drive has two STO inputs, then both STO1 and STO2 must be inactivated simultaneously for drive to operate. STO inputs are designed to be used on emergency stopping situations and not during normal every day drive control.
Enable
Every SMV2 compatible drive listens enable signal through SMV bus. Enable signal is a software based enable and useful for non-safety related motor stopping in normal operation.

Pin-out[edit | edit source]

Pin Name Function
1 GND Ground for 24V power supply. Will be same tied with ground of drive logic supply voltage and SimpleMotion V2 USB adapter (PC ground).
2 V_IN 24VDC supply to SMV2BRK. Use same 24V supply that is used to feed drive 24V logic voltage.
3 ENA Enable signal input. Drives disabled when open circuit or pulled to GND, enabled when connected to 24VDC.
4 V_OUT 24V output, connected to V_IN through on-board fuse. Used to feed voltage to switches.
5 STO1- STO number 1 negative input. When STO in inactive (motor able to produce toreque), tie GND to this pin. To activate STO1, leave STO1-, STO1+ or both floating.
6 STO1+ STO number 1 positive input. When STO in inactive (motor able to produce toreque), tie V_OUT to this pin. To activate STO1, leave STO1-, STO1+ or both floating.
7 V_OUT 24V output, connected to V_IN through on-board fuse. Used to feed voltage to switches.
8 STO2 STO number 2 input. STO2 is referenced to GND and to inactivate STO2, connect V_OUT to STO2. To activate STO2, leave floating.
9 V_OUT 24V output, connected to V_IN through on-board fuse. Used to feed voltage to switches.

Usage[edit | edit source]

SMV2BRK is intended to be wired to E-stop button of the motion control system. The following diagram illustrates the preferred wiring:

Smv2brk Usageschem.png

For testing purposes, or if no STO or Enable need to be controlled, SMV2BRK may be wired by short pieces of wire which always keep STO disabled and Enable active:

Smv2brk Usageschemsimple.png

Availability[edit | edit source]

SMV2BRK is available through Granite Devices web shop.

J3 connector wiring[edit | edit source]

Warning: Display title "Argon J3 connector wiring" overrides earlier display title "Argon J1 connector wiring".
Argon's J3 is a 3 pole terminal block type connector used for supplying 24VDC to drive and optionally controlling motor solenoid brake.

Pin-out[edit | edit source]

Pin # Pin name Description Connection
1 BK Motor brake output If motor has a 24V solenoid brake, connect brake between BK and V+
2 V+ 24V supply positive input Connect to 24V PSU +
3 V- 24V supply ground, on J1, J2.x and J5 connectors tied to GND Connect to 24V PSU -

24VDC typical current consumption is between 0.1 - 0.7ADC depending on how much current is drawn by feedback device and an optional motor brake.

Wiring guide[edit | edit source]

Brake output is optional and may be left unconnected if brake is not present in the axis. Argonwiringoverview.png

J4 connector wiring[edit | edit source]

Warning: Display title "Argon J4 connector wiring" overrides earlier display title "Argon J3 connector wiring".
J4 is a 10 pole terminal block connector for several functions: earthing, AC power input, motor output, regenerative resistor output and HV DC link sharing. See also the main article about Argon wiring.


Pin-out[edit | edit source]

Pin # Pin name Descrpition AC/BLDC motor connection Brush DC motor connection
1 VN HV DC link negative rail Do not connect, unless linking multiple drives with VN & VP to share their internal power supplies and braking resistor.
2 BR Braking resistor output Optional braking resistor terminals. See Argon braking resistor
3 VP HV DC link positive rail
4 PE ⏚ Protective earth Connect to motor PE conductor and motor cable shield
5 U Motor phase output Motor U phase ¹ Motor armature+
6 V Motor phase output Motor V phase ¹ Motor armature-
7 W Motor phase output Motor W phase ¹ No connection
8 L AC mains supply Line Connect to AC supply line
9 N AC mains supply Neutral Connect to AC supply neutral
10 PE ⏚ Protective earth Connect to supply protective earth. This connection is always mandatory when any voltage larger than 30 VAC or 42 VDC is supplied to the device!. See Argon user guide/Earthing.

¹ In some motors U,V,W phases are called R,S,T instead.

J4 wiring guide[edit | edit source]

Wiring multiple drives with power supply & braking resistor sharing[edit | edit source]

Note this drawing does not include wiring to motor (J4), motor brake (J3), feedback device (J1), controller (J5) and AC power input circuity.

Argon wiring multiple.png

Detailed single drive wiring schematics[edit | edit source]

Basic wiring scheme of Argon (servo drive). Use of shielded cables is optional but highly recommended for EMI compliance and optimal reliability. For recommended accessories, EMI filters etc, see Mating connectors and accessories.

Argonwiringoverview.png

J5 connector wiring[edit | edit source]

Warning: Display title "Argon J5 connector wiring" overrides earlier display title "Argon J4 connector wiring".
This article explains the internal circuity behind J5 connector of Argon servo drive.

J5 connector pin-out and electrical ratings[edit | edit source]

Pin groups[edit | edit source]

J5groups.png

ArgonJ5pinout.png

Internal schematics of pin groups[edit | edit source]

These images show the circuity behind the J5 connector inside the Argon drive (simplified schematics). Left side end represents J5 pins and right side continues to drive internal circuity.

Pin-out[edit | edit source]

Pin # Pin name Electrical Isolated Function¹
1 GND Supply No² Ground
2 +5V_OUT Supply 5V output
3 HSIN1- High speed digital input
4 HSIN1+ High speed digital input
5 HSIN2- High speed digital input
  • Direction signal of pulse train (in Pulse and direction setpoint mode)
  • Quadrature B channel (in quadrature setpoint mode)
  • PWM (in PWM and PWM+Dir setpoint modes)
6 HSIN2+ High speed digital input
7 ANAIN1- Analog input Analog input setpoint
8 ANAIN1+ Analog input
9 ANAIN2- Analog input Direction reversal signal for analog input setpoint signal.
10 ANAIN2+ Analog input
11 GPO1- Digital output Yes² Servo ready status. True when drive is initialized and ready to accept user commands/setpoint.
12 GPO1+ Digital output
13 GPO2- Digital output Position/velocity control mode tracking error warning status. True when tracking error has reached more than user configured 1/8 of fault limit value or when drive is not enabled. May be used by controller to throttle the setpoint thus avoid triggering an tracking error fault. May require FW upgrade.
14 GPO2+ Digital output
15 GPO3- Digital output Fault stop status. True when drive is stopped due to fault.
16 GPO3+ Digital output
17 GPO4- Digital output Braking status. Set true when drive attempts to brake motor.
18 GPO4+ Digital output
19 GPI1- Digital input Home switch input.
20 GPI1+ Digital input
21 GPI2- Digital input Positive feed enable input. Used for axis limit switches.
22 GPI2+ Digital input
23 GPI3- Digital input Negative feed enable input. Used for axis limit switches.
24 GPI3+ Digital input
25 GPI4- Digital input Clear drive faults input. Transition from false to true attempts to reset active faults of drive. If drive is simultaneously in enabled state, motor will start moving immediately.
26 GPI4+ Digital input

¹) This is the default function with stock firmware. Function may be different in future or custom firmware versions.

²) Non-isolated lines are referenced to GND pin / J3 V- terminal. Isolated lines have functional isolation between GND and other isolated +-/- pairs.

Wiring guide[edit | edit source]

Supply[edit | edit source]

Supply pins output a regulated 5V voltage to external circuits. GND pin is tied to J3 connector V- terminal.

Electrical properties
  • Output voltage 4.9-5.2 V
  • Maximum load 500 mA
  • Maximum injected current -10 mA

High speed digital input group[edit | edit source]

HSIN is differential digital input capable of receiving digital signals up to 4 MHz.

Electrical properties

  • Maximum voltage to HSINx+/- pins referenced to GND: -0.5 to 6V. Nominal 3.3 or 5.0V.
  • Maximum injected current +/- 10 mA
  • When negative input (HSINx-) is left floating, it floats around 2.5V
  • Input state reads logic 1 when voltage on positive pin is greater than voltage on negative pin, otherwise it's logic 0

Wiring when driving using differential source

  • Positive outputs of source to HSINx+
  • Negative outputs of source to HSINx-
  • GND must be connected to source ground

Wiring when driving using single ended source (TTL, CMOS or open collector)

  • Outputs of source to HSINx+
  • Leave HSINx- floating
  • GND must be connected to source ground

Analog input group[edit | edit source]

Analog input accepts ±10V from and may be used as setpoint signal. Electrical properties

  • Input impedance ~10 kΩ
  • Maximum ANAINx+/- pin voltage vs GND ±25V
  • Maximum injected current ±10 mA
  • Sampling resolution 12 bits

Wiring to differential signal source

  • Connect positive output to ANAINx+
  • Connect negative (inverted) output to ANAINx-
  • Connect source ground to GND

Wiring to single ended signal source

  • Connect output to ANAINx+
  • Connect source ground to ANAINx-
  • Connect source ground to GND

Wiring to 0-10V analog output with digital direction output:

  • Follow the earlier guidelines but connect controller's direction signal to ANAIN2+ and the ground reference of digital output to ANAIN2-. Setpoint gets inverted inside the drive if ANAIN2 voltage is between 3-24VDC and non-inverted between 0-3VDC. May require FW upgrade.

Digital output group[edit | edit source]

Digital output is an optoisolated transistor output to drive various types of inputs of target devices (logic gates, relays, lights etc) Electrical properties

  • Load voltage range 3-24V
  • Maximum allowed load 50 mA
  • Logic 1 state equals conducting state of optocoupler transistor (current flows from GPO+ to GPO- pins), logic 0 stops current flow between GPO+ to GPO- pins.
  • + to - pin voltage drop at 50 mA less than 2 VDC

Wiring to logic gate input (CMOS or TTL)

  • Connect GPO+ pin to target VCC (typ 5V)
  • Connect GPO- pin to target input pin (so input pin is pulled to 5V when output state is logic 1)

Digital input group[edit | edit source]

Connection from electromechanical switch or relay to isolated digital input. PSU may be external power supply or 5V supply from J5 connector.

Digital inputs are optoisolated (floating potential) inputs for general purpose control signals. Electrical properties

  • Signal voltage range 3-24V
  • Logic 0 when difference between +/- inputs less than 1.5V, logic 1 when voltage is between 2.9-25V
  • Current needed to drive logic 1 is 0.8-9 mA depending on input voltage
  • Maximum voltage difference between GPIx+/- inputs 27 VDC
  • Maximum voltage difference between GPIx+/- inputs vs GND 120 VDC

Connection to electromechanical switch or relay

  • See schematics image in right side

Connection to CMOS source

  • Connect source output to GPIx+ input
  • Connect source ground to GPIx- input

Connection to open collector or TTL source

  • Connect source output to GPIx- input
  • Connect source VCC (typ 5V) to GPOx+ input

Examples[edit | edit source]

Wiring axis limit and home switches to J5[edit | edit source]

To operate the motor, limit switches must be connected to the GPI1 and GPI2. Feeding logic 1 to one of these ports enables axis motion feed in certain direction.

The behavior of feed enable signals can be configured via Granity machine tab. Logic 1 to these pins is required for drive operation:

  • GPI1 - enable positive direction feed.
  • GPI2 - enable negative direction feed.

Home switch (optional):

  • GPI3 - home switch input. Polarity can be configured via Granity.

In the image below A way to connect switches to J5 port. Inputs are supplied by the J5 connector 5V output. Alternatively the switches may be also supplied from an external 5-24VDC supply.

J5switches.png

The example below illustrates an alternative way of connecting limit switches that are connected in series. However this way requires that axis is being manually pulled away from end of travel if either switch is open as drive doesn't know which way is the safe running direction.

J5switches2.png

Alternative limit switch wiring considerations[edit | edit source]

It is possible to connect limit switches several way, or omit them completely. The table below summarizes the different methods:

Method # Connections / configurations End of travel causes a fault stop state End of travel causes active braking of motor Can move motor electrically out end of travel Remarks
A Connect limit switches independently to GPI2 and GPI3 inputs Yes (but depends on parameterization) Yes (but depends on parameterization) Yes This is the most typical method used
B Connect limit switches in series to GPI2 and GPI3 inputs parallel Yes (but depends on parameterization) Yes (but depends on parameterization) No Drive has info only that limit switch is open but no info about which way is safe to move
C No limit switches, instead use homing function (position control mode only) and set soft travel limits by parameterization No Yes Yes Sensorless & wireless solution
D Connect limit switches Safe torque off input Yes No, motor may free wheel No A very secure way to remove torque from motor. If such feature is desired, it's recommended to install second pair of limit switches or use soft travel limits that stop motion before the STO switches, so STO switches would serve only as backup.
E Connect limit switch to enable drive input No Yes Yes

Pulse and direction setpoint[edit | edit source]

This example shows how to wire a typical single ended pulse and direction controller.

J5pulsedir.png

Quadrature signal setpoint[edit | edit source]

This example shows how to wire a typical single ended quadrature controller.

J5quadrature.png

PWM signal setpoing[edit | edit source]

This example shows how to wire a typical single ended PWM controller.

J5pwm.png

Analog signal setpoint[edit | edit source]

This example shows how to wire a typical single ended Analog setpoint controller. Maximum analog signal voltage is +/-10V.

J5analog.png

0-10V analog input with digital direction signal[edit | edit source]

Follow the earlier guidelines but connect controller's direction signal to ANAIN2+ and the ground reference of digital output to ANAIN2-. Setpoint gets inverted inside the drive if ANAIN2 voltage is between 3-24VDC and non-inverted between 0-3VDC. May require FW upgrade.

Complete example with pulse & direction[edit | edit source]

The examples above can be combined to achieve the user goals. The example below has complete set of I/O features used.

  • Pulse & direction set point
  • Clear faults output (off-on-off pulse generated by controller user if FAULT input goes on)
  • Monitoring of drive state: servo ready, tracking error warning, drive fault, motor braking status
  • Axis limit switches & home switch

Notes:

  • The controller in the example has 5 volt single ended inputs & outputs
  • Controller inputs have pull-down resistor or other means to ensure off or 0 state when input is floating
  • It's not required to to monitor & control the I/O lines at controller

J5pulsedircomplete.png


Complete example with differential analog setpoint[edit | edit source]

Same as above expect this time the setpoint signal is a differential analog voltage output (max +/-10V).

J5analogcomplete.png

Braking resistor[edit | edit source]

250 Watt 82 ohm regenerative resistor suitable for Argon drive
Regenerative resistors are usually a part with servo systems to absorb returned energy from decelerating or braking servo axis.

Servo drive with motor can act two ways: energy supply and energy generator. The generator behavior occurs during decelerations and this causes current flow from motor to drive power supply capacitors. If that generated energy is not absorbed anywhere, the voltage of capacitors will rise above overvoltage threshold and trigger an software clearable overvoltage fault.

Overvoltage faults[edit | edit source]

Scenarios where returned energy is causing the rise of HV DC bus voltage:

  • Deceleration of motor speed when there is significant amount of energy stored in mechanical motion (rotating inertia or moving mass). This typically occurs with spindles and linear axes.
  • Sudden reversal of torque setpoint. This can generate voltage spike even when motor is standing still. This typically occurs in high bandwidth torque control applications (such as Force feedback system (FFB)). These spikes are very short and an added capacitor to HV DC bus and/or low resistance regenerative resistor can provide a solution.

See also[edit | edit source]

Argon supports connecting braking resistor directly to drive J4 connector.

Suitable resistor type[edit | edit source]

Characteristics of Argon regenerative resistor output:

Property Value Units
Maximum current 6 A
Series fuse 8 A
Minimum allowed resistance @ 230 VAC supply 63 Ω
Minimum allowed resistance @ 115 VAC supply 35 Ω
Resistor power dissipation 0-2400¹ W

¹) Power dissipation depends on how much system's kinetic energy is directed to the resistor

Recommended resistor specifications:

  • Resistance 80-100 ohms @ 220-240 VAC
  • Resistance 40-50 ohms @ 110-120 VAC
  • Power rating 150-300 Watts, this may greatly vary depending on how much energy the braking resistor must absorb
  • Wire wound construction (no film resistors unless high peak energy capable)
  • Preferrable in metal housing for grounding/noise shielding

The 250W resistor in the image can absorb enough peak energy to stop 100 kg mechanical linear axis moving up to 3 m/s.

Example of suitable resistor for most 220-240 VAC installations: Tyco HSC 250 82R (data sheet pdf).

Installation[edit | edit source]

Wiring of braking resistor to Argon drive

The image aside shows proper wiring of braking resistor. Proper installation has:

  • Shielded cable with 3 conductors with wire gauge at least 0.75 mm² / 18 AWG
  • Cable shield AND earth conductor connected to drive PE terminal
  • Earth conductor connected to resistor casing. Place toothed locking washers between wire terminal and resistor to break the insulating coating of resistor case.
  • Two other conductors connected to resistor terminals through 8A fast blow fuse
  • Resistor should be also mounted on heat sink
  • Additionally it is a recommended to shield the resistor terminals from accidental touching

Parameterization[edit | edit source]

The important parameter that controls usage of resistor in Granity is the over voltage level Over voltage fault thresholdFOV. Drive starts conducting current through resistor when HV DC bus voltage is near FOV value. It is important to set FOV high enough to prevent drive from using resistor constantly while AC supply is connected to the drive. The formula for mimimum FOV value is: FOVminimum=VAC*1.6. I.e. on nominal 230 VAC bus the FOV value should be set to no less than 368 VDC.

Resistor sharing[edit | edit source]

It is possible to share HV DC link between Argon drives to reduce number of braking resistors needed. Sharing DC bus also forms a higher power HV DC supply between the drives allowing higher power drawn from a single drive if other drives are running on lighter load.

Wiring of shared braking resistor between multiple Argon drives

Parameterization[edit | edit source]

Warning: Display title "Argon parameterization" overrides earlier display title "Argon J5 connector wiring".

This article will describe how to set-up Argon parameters with Granity to make motor operational and ready for servo tuning.

Preparations and connection[edit | edit source]

As the goal is to parameterize and make motor operational, we should have:

  1. The drive and motor fully wired. However it's not required to have controller (to J5 port) or braking resistor connected at this point.
  2. Be familiar with the operation and parameters of Granity. Make sure you have read Granity user guide.
  3. Granity connection working. See Making the first Granity connection

Walk-through of initial parameterization[edit | edit source]

In this chapter we walk-trough all Granity tabs and modify the parameter needed. This guide assumes that the drive is in factory defaults state (not configured before). Restore drive to factory state can be done by uploading a firmware file to the drive.

Connect tab[edit | edit source]

No other actions than connect to drive needed on this tab. Once connection successful, proceed to the next tab.

Goals tab[edit | edit source]

The factory defaults (torque control as control mode and serial only as setpoint) as well as the other defaults are the correct ones for beginning.

Machine tab[edit | edit source]

In this tab we configure the motor and its feedback device.

Axis mechanics[edit | edit source]

Parameters Axis type & unitsAXT and Axis scaleAXS affect only on the unit conversion of Granity parameters (such as acceleration/velocity limit unit conversions) and has no effect on drive operation.

Choose your axis type and scale, or leave them as defaults.

Motor[edit | edit source]

Find motor parameters from the motor data sheet/manufacturer specifications.

  1. Choose motor type from the drown down list Motor typeMT. If motor is linear type, see configuring linear servo motor.
  2. Set motor Pole countMPC (non-brush DC motors only). If unsure, see Determining motor pole count.
  3. Set Maximum speedMMS of the motor, or alternatively the maximum allowed motor speed in the target application
  4. Set motor Peak current limitMMC and Peak current limitMMC current values. If non-brush DC motor type has been selected, then these are measured as the peak value of sine. See Motor peak and continuous current limits for description.
  5. Set motor Coil resistanceMR and Coil inductanceML, these values are measured Phase-to-phase. If unavailable, perform Tuning torque controller manually after initial parameters are set.
  6. Set Thermal time constantMTC. Motor thermal time constant value in seconds, used for thermal modeling of motor to avoid motor overheating with Peak current limitMMC. If not available, use formula 200*motor_weight (kg) as approximate, so a 2 kg motor would get a 400 second time constant. There is no guarantee of accuracy of this method.

Feedback device[edit | edit source]

  1. Choose feedback device type from the drop down Feedback deviceFBD
  2. Set feedback device resolution. If Feedback deviceFBD is quadrature encoder, then manufacturers typically give resolution as pulses per revolution (PPR) or lines per revolution (LPR) which are the same thing and shall be entered directly into Feedback device resolutionFBR field. Some manufactures also call PPR as CPR.
  3. Configure the polarity of feedback device counting direction by Invert feedback directionFBI parameter. Motor and feedback device must have same electrical positive rotation direction to make a stable servo system. If your system shows no stability (instant following error after a motor "jump"), try changing this setting.
  4. Leave the Hall sensors Off from the parameter Hall sensorsFBH during initial setup. Enable later if necessary (see when).

Tuning[edit | edit source]

Tuning tab contains feedback gain values for velocity and position control modes as well as torque bandwidth limit setting. Configuring these parameters are documented in Servo motor tuning guide. However, before proceeding into tuning, go through all other settings listed in this article.

Fault limits[edit | edit source]

Fault limits define the conditions in which drive is willing to operate. If condition is out of the set values, drive will enter into a fault state and stop motor control until errors are cleared.

Drive fault limits[edit | edit source]

These settings specify drive electrical condition such as supply voltage and over current tolerance.

  1. Leave Over current toleranceFOC value as default if no overcurrent faults occur. See Tuning torque controller if overcurrent faults occur.
  2. Set Under voltage fault thresholdFUV and Over voltage fault thresholdFOV by following the page Configuring drive voltage limits FUV and FOV.
  3. It is important to goal deviation faults (i.e. Goal faults filter timeFFT, Position tracking error thresholdFPT, Velocity tracking error thresholdFVT, Over speed faultFEV) as low as possible. Set them so that faults don't occur during normal operation but any anomaly or unexpected behavior will trigger them.

Goal deviation faults[edit | edit source]

These faults adjust motor monitoring during operation. Drive will enter into fault state if motor condition deviates more than allowed from the desired condition. See Granity unit conversion before adjusting.

  1. Goal faults filter timeFFT sets the time how fast Position tracking error thresholdFPT, Velocity tracking error thresholdFVT, Over speed faultFEV and Motion fault thresholdFMO faults react. Setting higher time value allows drive to continue operation over short deviations thus avoid false triggering. Set this from 0.0 to 0.2 seconds in the beginning.
  2. Set Position tracking error threshold Position tracking error thresholdFPT according how much mechanical axis is allowed to deviate from the setpoint position in position control mode.
  3. Set Velocity tracking error threshold Velocity tracking error thresholdFVT according how much motor or axis speed may may deviate from the velocity setpoint. This affects also in position mode as velocity controller is the intermediate step between torque and position controllers.
  4. Set Over speed faultFEV according to the maximum speed allowed for the motor or axis. Helps to stop motor if system goes totally out of control and speeds up spuriously.
  5. Leave Motion fault thresholdFMO as 0 (0 = disabled) for the beginning. Using nonzero value enables motion fault.
  6. Choose Limit switch functionLFS according to your preference. If other than Do nothing option requires that limit switches are installed and connected to J5 port. Note: at the moment Servo stop option is active in the drive firmware and will do nothing until FW upgrade enables it.

Testing tab[edit | edit source]

These settings does not affect drive operation, so nothing to be changed here at this point. These controls will be used for servo tuning purposes and fault analysis.

Servo motor tuning[edit | edit source]

Tuning a servo motor is a compulsory task to make motor behave as desired and perform well during operation. Follow the Servo motor tuning guide.

Finishing touches[edit | edit source]

The last step of parameterization is to adapt settings to match the motion controller. Steps:

  1. Choose setpoint input Setpoint inputCRI to match your motion controller.
  2. If external motion controller with acceleration limit (such as CNC controller) is being used, then it is advised to set Acceleration limitCAL value to maximum of 32767 (unlimited acceleration) after motor tuning to enable motion tracking without delay. Use a limited acceleration value if drive is being used with pulse burst positioning or SimpleMotion V2 controller.
  3. If setpoint is too sensitive or not sensitive enough (such as limiting speed), then adjust setpoint scaling factory by adjusting Setpoint multiplierMUL and Setpoint dividerDIV.
  4. If setpoint signal is noisy or jittering, try enabling Setpoint smoothingCIS to smoothen it inside drive. However, leave Setpoint smoothingCIS disabled if setpoint tracking without any delay is desired.
  5. Set-up homing if required by application

Servo tuning basics[edit | edit source]

Driving a servo motor is much like driving a car. Driving a car has many similarities including the key concepts of torque, velocity and position control. Most of this happens in the driver's head the same way than a servo drive does with a motor.

For those who are already familiar with the basics, see the principles of real world servo motor drive from article Signal path of motor drive.

Driving (a.k.a servoing) a car[edit | edit source]

Driving a car to a destination is much like driving a servo motor to it's destination position. The analogies in between are:

Car Servo axis
Pedal (motor gasoline feed) Torque setpoint (motor current feed)
Speed limit Velocity setpoint
Target location Position setpoint
Speed meter Velocity feedback
Trip meter Position feedback
Car driver Servo drive

Carexample base.png

The ultimate goal of driver is to get to the target. To achieve this, he follows the road (trajectory) at certain velocity and decelerates once target is being reached. Without knowing, the driver acts as servo controller where he:

  • Controls car's velocity based on the speed meter value and speed limit
  • Controls car's position based on trip meter's reading or by observing location trough the windshield
  • All actions the driver makes, is based on comparing the setpoints and the actual state

Servo controller basics[edit | edit source]

Controller gains and a PI controller[edit | edit source]

Controller gain means sensitivity to change output due to tracking error (the difference between setpoint and feedback).

The simplest form of feedback based controller is a proportional gain controller (P controller) where output follows the formula output = Pgain*(setpoint-feedback). The problem of proportional gain controller is that it may never reach the setpoint because output starts approaching zero when the following error is reaching zero.

Because of this, it's better to add in integrating component to the controller (forming PI controller). Integrator accumulates the tracking error to a integrator variable. Integrator variable is like a bucket of water, when you add water, the water level rises and when you take out water, the level lowers. In controller the equation becomes: output = Pgain*(setpoint-feedback) + Igain*IntegralOf(setpoint-feedback).

The characteristics of feedback gain variables:

  • P-gain - reacts instantly to the tracking error but can't eliminate tracking error completely
  • I-gain - reacts slowly over time, adjusts output until tracking error is zero

When driving a car, human brain closely resembles the operation of a PI controller. For in-depth info about PI controllers and its variants, see the Wikipedia article PID controller.

Tuning the gains[edit | edit source]

Controller tuning means finding of the optimum gain values for the given system.

The proper gain values always depend on many aspects, especially the target system dynamic properties (such as motor properties, axis transmission ratios, inertias and masses). Change of properties introduces the requirement of tuning the gain values as gain values that work fine in one system may not behave satisfactory on a different system.

In servo drive case, this means that each motor type and mechanical axis need to be tuned separately. However, if axis and motors are identical, then the same gains should work equally.

Gain tuning (car) example[edit | edit source]

The following series of images illustrate an imaginary car driving scenario where the driver acts as velocity controller of the car. The magnitude of PI gain values equal the driver's aggressivity of controlling the pedal to reach the desired speed.

Low gains - sluggish response[edit | edit source]

Carexample sluggish.png

If the gains are set too low, the system response tends to be sluggish and sometimes leave a static tracking error (not reaching setpoint in any time). In this imaginary case we could think PI gains to be P=20 I=10.

Too high gains - oscillation & instability[edit | edit source]

Carexample unstablepng.png

If the gains are set too high, the system becomes overshooting, oscillating and less stable. Here the comparable PI gains could be P=200 I=100

Optimum gains - only little overshoot[edit | edit source]

Carexample stable.png

When the gains are tuned correctly, the response shows rapid response with low overshoot and no ringing or oscillations. The comparable gains here P=50 I=25.

Optimum gains with realistic setpoint - optimum response[edit | edit source]

Carexample response accellimit.png

The response can be improved further by introducing a limit to the slew rate of setpoint signal. The controller behaves optimally when the system is able to follow the setpoint continuously with little tracking error. In this case the gains could be same as before, P=50 I=25.

Real servo motor controller[edit | edit source]

See the principles of real world servo motor drive from article Signal path of motor drive.


Tuning torque controller[edit | edit source]

Torque controller tuning means finding the correct gain values for a torque controller inside the servo drive to achieve a proper response from a torque setpoint change.

Direct inductance & resistance setting method[edit | edit source]

In Granity, there is no dedicated torque control PI gains as the software supports entering motor coil inductance and resistance where the suitable PI gains are calculated from.

Method 1 (preferred)[edit | edit source]

If you are using a drive model that supports automatic measurement of inductance and resistance, follow the instructions here.

Method 2[edit | edit source]

If the above measurement function is not available, and your motor comes with coil specifications containing phase-to-phase inductance and resistance values, then the only necessary step is to enter the given values into motor Coil resistanceMR and Coil inductanceML parameter fields. In case of troubles with this method, proceed with manual tuning method.

Manual tuning method[edit | edit source]

Manual tuning of torque controller is some times done in order to optimize the torque controller response or to find the correct motor Coil resistanceMR and Coil inductanceML parameters if unknown. Manual tuning also usually yields better torque response than the direct method which may help tuning of velocity or position tuning.

In order to change torque tuning, one needs to change motor Coil resistanceMR and Coil inductanceML parameters until the torque response looks satisfactory.

Preparations[edit | edit source]

Correct torque tuning settings on the Testing tab.

Steps to do to begin torque tuning:

  • Ensure that motor is parameterized correctly and working
  • Fix the motor shaft so that it cannot rotate under full peak torque of the motor
  • Make following parameter changes to Granity and click apply afterwards:
    • Set drive in torque control mode Control modeCM
    • Set Torque bandwidth limitTBW to maximum
    • Choose Serial only setpoint input Control modeCM
    • Untick Setpoint smoothingCIS
    • Set Goals tab Setpoint dividerDIV and Setpoint multiplierMUL to 50
    • Make other necessary adjustments to have drive powered and enabled
  • Set-up the test stimulus and capture settings from Testing tab:
    • Set target setpoint 1 TSP1 to 2000-15000 (see the chapter below for finding the optimum test setpoint)
    • Set delay 1 TSD1 to 0.05 seconds
    • Set target setpoint 2 TSP2 to 0
    • Set delay1 TSD2 to 0.5 s
    • Choose sample rate Sample rateTSR of 10000 Hz or more
    • Choose Capture setpoint change ind positive direction from the dropdown
    • Tick Continuously repeating capture
    • Tick Torque setpoint and Torque achieved from signals
    • Tick Start capture to begin continous capture.
    • Tick Enable test stimulusTSE to begin a pulsed torque generation

Once the steps above are done, motor should be generating short torque pulses to a fixed shaft and torque response graphs should appear on the right side of Granity about once in 3-5 seconds.

Finding optimium test current (TSP1)[edit | edit source]

To find optimum value for TSP1, enable capture channel called "Motor output voltage" to see how much voltage is driven to motor during rising the edge of torque. For optimum TSP1 value the voltage peak should lie within 20% to 80%. If voltage gets saturated (100%), reduce TSP1 value until it stays below 80%. Images below illustrate the wrong case (first image) and correctly set case (second image).

Adjusting MR and ML to for optimum torque control[edit | edit source]

The task here is to adjust the Coil resistanceMR and Coil inductanceML parameters to achieve near optimum step response for the torque controller. Observe the images below for guidance.

TorqlowR.png

In this case the Coil resistanceMR value has been set too low causing slowly rising achieved torque curve. Such slow response would reduce servo responsiveness.

TorqhighR.png

In the opposite case (too high Coil resistanceMR value) the response shows wavy oscillations and ovesrhoot.

TorqlowL.png

Same kind of phenomenon will be seen if motor Coil inductanceML value is too low. Finding oscillation free tuning is finding the correct balance between the MR and ML as both affect each other.

TorqhigL.png

Too high Coil inductanceML will cause sharp overshooting and high frequency oscillations. Motor may produce audible noise if oscillations are continuous (occurs with way too high ML).

Torqgood.png

The above image shows near optimum torque response with fast rising edge combined to minimal overshoot.

Torqgoodspinning.png

The above image shows what may happen if motor shaft is not fixed properly (allowed to rotate). This is with the same optimum settings like the previous image.

Steps to do after manual tuning finished[edit | edit source]

  • Stop test stimulus by unticking Enable test stimulusTSE
  • Stop scope catpure by unticking Continuously repeating capture
  • Undo all temporary changes made to settings (such as Torque bandwidth limitTBW, Control modeCM, Setpoint dividerDIV, Setpoint multiplierMUL) but leave the optimized Coil resistanceMR and Coil inductanceML values active
  • Save settings to drive memory by clicking Save settings on drive non-volatile memory button

Using drive in torque mode[edit | edit source]

If torque mode is the final desired operating mode, set-up the setpoint signal source from Granity Goals tab. Also see Signal path of motor drive for explanation of torque setpoint scale.


Tuning velocity controller[edit | edit source]

Velocity controller tuning means finding the correct drive settings and feedback gain values to achieve a proper Servo stiffness and response to a velocity setpoint change.

This tuning guide is for you if the final application uses the motor in velocity control mode such as spindle or as position mode with external closed loop position controller such as LinuxCNC.

Velocity control tuning method[edit | edit source]

Preparations[edit | edit source]

An example of Testing tab settings for velocity controller tuning. Different settings should be experimented during the process to observe the stability and behavior of the settings.
Initial settings on Goals tab before beginning the example in this tuning guide.

Steps to do to begin position tuning:

  • Ensure that motor is parameterized correctly and working and torque control tuning has been properly done.
  • Attach motor to the target load and ensure it can rotate in both directions infinitely
  • Make following parameter changes to Granity and click apply afterwards:
    • Set drive in velocity control mode Control modeCM
    • Choose Serial only setpoint input Control modeCM
    • Make other necessary adjustments to have drive powered and enabled
    • Untick Setpoint smoothingCIS
    • Set Goals tab Setpoint dividerDIV and Setpoint multiplierMUL to 50
    • Set Acceleration limitCAL & Velocity limitCVL reasonably to the levels that motor is expected to handle
  • Set-up the test stimulus and capture settings from Testing tab (an example, may be varied):
    • Set target setpoint 1 TSP1 between 1000 and 16383 (16383 equals the max speed that is configured via Velocity limitCVL)
    • Set delay 1 TSD1 to 0.25 seconds
    • Set target setpoint 2 TSP2 to same, but negative, value of TSP1
    • Set delay1 STD2 to 0.25 s
    • Choose Sample rateTSR of 500 to 2500 Hz
    • Choose Capture setpoint change in positive direction from the dropdown
    • Tick Continuously repeating capture
    • Tick Velocity setpoint and Velocity achieved from signals
    • Tick Start capture to begin continous capture.
    • Tick Enable test stimulusTSE to begin a continuous position back and forth spinning motion generation

Once the steps above are done, motor should be generating direction reversing spinning and velocity response graphs should appear on the right side of Granity about once in 3-5 seconds.

Finding velocity control gain values[edit | edit source]

Tuning protocol[edit | edit source]

Tuning is begun with low or medium target speeds (TSP1 & 2 values below 5000).

Veltuning2.png

Initial velocity response with the default settings. As seen from the achieved velocity graph, it follows the setpoint velocity lazily and exhibits overshooting. In such state motor servo stiffness is low can be easily decelerated by adding load to the shaft.

Veltuning4.png

Begin tuning by increasing Velocity P gainKVP. This makes motor follow velocity setpoint much better.

To try different gains, go to Tuning tab, change value and click the Apply settings button.


Veltuning3.png

When Velocity P gainKVP has been increased too much, the system becomes unstable and may start oscillating. In such case, you may hit Esc button to disable drive, reduce the gain and enable drive again.

Tip: torque bandwidth has significant effect on the behavior of KVP value and the point where it goes unstable. One may experiment different Torque bandwidth limitTBW settings to find the optimum.

Veltuning6.png

Once a maximum perfectly stable Velocity P gainKVP value has been found, start increasing Velocity I gainKVI gain by a similar fashion. The higher KVI value is, the better servo stiffness.

Veltuning5.png

If Velocity P gainKVP is increased too much, the result is overshooting and even sustained oscillation. The cure is similar to the too high Velocity P gainKVP as described earlier.

Velocitylowgain.png

Once stable and stiff gains has been found, increase setpoint values (TSP1 & 2) to test the settings with higher speeds. If necessary adjust the gains experimentally to find the optimum tuning that works satisfactory on all needed speeds.

Advanced tuning: Feed-forwards[edit | edit source]

Feed-forward parameters may be used to boost motor responsiveness to setpoint change. Velocity feed-forward gainVFF and Acceleration feed-forward gainAFF essentially compensate system friction and mass limiting the dynamic performance.

The recommended way to tune FF gains, is to start increasing Velocity feed-forward gainVFF until the optimum level has been found. After that, increase Acceleration feed-forward gainAFF until the optimum point has been reached.

Velocitylowgainff.png

In the image above a sharp response has been achieved even with low feedback gains as feed-forward gains help motor to accelerate as demanded.

Velocitystable.png

The image above shows similar response without feed-forwards but using high feedback gain values (optimally tuned according to the previous chapter).

Problem cases[edit | edit source]

Current/torque saturation[edit | edit source]

In the following test we run motor with higher speeds (TSPn > 10000) to illustrate a typical problem case.

Currentsaturatin.png

The image above shows acceleration limited by insufficient torque produced by the motor. In this example the acceleration limit is set too high to be accelerated with the given motor torque limits (or current limits).

To verify if the problem happens due to torque limit, tick also Torque achieved and Torque setpoint signals from the Testing tab settings. In such way also motor currents will be displayed simultaneously with the position response curves. If the torque curve is limited to the set Peak current limitMMC, then the problem is insufficient torque. In the image above we can see that the torque curves are saturated/clipping at 5A and -5A levels which matches the configured Peak current limitMMC value of 5A in this demonstration.

To help this, try:

  • Increasing current limits Peak current limitMMC and Continuous current limitMCC if possible
  • Reducing Acceleration limitCAL and/or Velocity limitCVL limits

Oscillation[edit | edit source]

Velocityunstable.png

The above example shows instability and oscillation with high speeds even when the system was stable at lower speeds with the same parameters. In such case tune the system again at the most unfavorable conditions and speeds to achieve stability over all required operating conditions.

Low resolution velocity feedback[edit | edit source]

Veltuning lowres.png

The above example shows another kind of problem: low resolution of velocity graph. This happens if feedback device resolution is low, and/or test velocity setpoint is low. However tuning is still possible. Tune KVP up until you find instability (you can hear it), and then take it down for 30-50% from that. Then adjust KVI up until graph looks best (no overshooting or oscillations). You may do this procedure with several torque bandwidths (TBW param) to see which gives best result.

Steps to do after tuning finished[edit | edit source]

  • Stop test stimulus by unticking Enable test stimulusTSE
  • Stop scope capture by unticking Continuously repeating capture
  • Undo all temporary changes made to settings
  • Save settings to drive memory by clicking Save settings on drive non-volatile memory button
  • Set preferred setpoint source Setpoint inputCRI, also consider the use of Setpoint smoothingCIS
  • If setpoint signal scaling is needed, adjust Setpoint multiplierMUL and Setpoint dividerDIV values

Using drive in velocity control mode[edit | edit source]

If velocity control mode is the final desired operating mode, set-up the setpoint signal source from Granity Goals tab. Also see Signal path of motor drive for explanation of velocity setpoint scale.

Tuning position controller[edit | edit source]

Position controller tuning means finding the correct drive settings and feedback gain values to achieve a proper Servo stiffness and response to a position setpoint change.

Position control tuning method[edit | edit source]

This article describes a practical approach for finding proper drive parameters to achieve a stable and stiff position control.

Preparations[edit | edit source]

An example of Testing tab settings for position controller tuning. Different settings should be experimented during the process to observe the stability and behavior of the settings.

Steps to do to begin position tuning:

  • Ensure that motor is parameterized correctly and working and torque control tuning has been properly done.
  • Attach motor to the target machine in a position where it can rotate in both directions
  • Make following parameter changes to Granity and click apply afterwards:
    • Set drive in position control mode Control modeCM
    • Choose Serial only setpoint input Control modeCM
    • Make other necessary adjustments to have drive powered and enabled
    • Untick Setpoint smoothingCIS
    • Set Goals tab Setpoint dividerDIV and Setpoint multiplierMUL to 50
    • Set Acceleration limitCAL & Velocity limitCVL limits reasonably to the levels that motor is expected to handle
  • Set-up the test stimulus and capture settings from Testing tab (an example, may be varied):
    • Set target setpoint 1 TSP1 to 100
    • Set delay 1 TSD1 to 0.25 seconds
    • Set target setpoint 2 TSP2 to -100
    • Set delay1 TSD2 to 0.25 s
    • Choose Sample rateTSR of 500 to 2500 Hz
    • Choose Capture setpoint change in positive direction from the dropdown
    • Tick Continuously repeating capture
    • Tick Position setpoint and Position achieved from signals
    • Tick Start capture to begin continous capture.
    • Tick Enable test stimulusTSE to begin a continuous position back and forth motion generation

Once the steps above are done, motor should be generating short distance back and forth motion motion and position response graphs should appear on the right side of Granity about once in 3-5 seconds.

Finding velocity & position control gain values[edit | edit source]


The task here is to adjust the Coil resistanceMR and Coil inductanceML parameters to achieve near optimum step response for the torque controller. Observe the images below for guidance.

Posgains1.png

The image above represents the initial position step response with low feedback gains. As seen, motor reaction is sluggish, lagging and has overshooting.

Posgains2.png

The next step is to increase Velocity P gainKVP gain as much as possible. The graph may start looking acceptable but it motor still has low stiffness thus it will get lag once mechanical load increases.

To try different gains, go to Tuning tab, change value and click the Apply settings button.

Posgains3.png

When Velocity P gainKVP has been increased too much, the system becomes unstable and may start oscillating. In such case, you may hit Esc button to disable drive, reduce the gain and enable drive again.

Tip: torque bandwidth has significant effect on the behavior of KVP value and the point where it goes unstable. One may experiment different Torque bandwidth limitTBW settings to find the optimum.

Posgains4.png

Once a maximum perfectly stable Velocity P gainKVP value has been found, start increasing Velocity I gainKVI gain by a similar fashion. The higher KVI value is, the better servo stiffness.

Posgains5.png

If Velocity P gainKVP is increased too much, the result is instability and oscillation. The cure is similar to the too high Velocity P gainKVP gain as described earlier.

Posgains6.png

Once both Velocity P gainKVP and Velocity I gainKVI has been optimized, the next step is to increase Position P gainKPP gain the same way. Increasing Position P gainKPP gives better servo stiffness but may also increase overshooting. Overshoot less than 10 feedback device counts is generally considered good.

Posgains7.png

Finally after playing little bit with all of Velocity P gainKVP, Velocity I gainKVI and Position P gainKPP experimentally, we find a less overshooting response without losing much stiffness.

Curing tracking error and overshoot[edit | edit source]

If servo overshoots too much, or can't follow the trajectory precisely, several cures may be tried.

Posgains8.png

Reducing Acceleration limitCAL and/or Velocity limitCVL limits makes the trajectory easier to follow and reduces tracking error and overshooting.

Posgains9.png

The same may be also achieved by utilizing Feed-forward Velocity feed-forward gainVFF and Acceleration feed-forward gainAFF which essentially compensate system friction and mass limiting the dynamic performance.

The recommended way to tune FF gains, is to start increasing Velocity feed-forward gainVFF until the optimum level has been found. After that, increase Acceleration feed-forward gainAFF until the optimum point has been reached.

Poscurrentsaturation.png

If following the tuning procedure does not result in satisfactory tracking performance, the problem may be asking too much from the motor. In the example above the acceleration limit is set too high to be accelerated with the given motor torque limits (or current limits).

To verify if the problem happens due to torque limit, tick also Torque achieved and Torque setpoint signals from the Testing tab settings. In such way also motor currents will be displayed simultaneously with the position response curves. If the torque curve is limited to the set, Peak current limitMMC, then the problem is insufficient torque. In the image above we can see that the torque curves are saturated at 4A and -4A levels which matches the configured Peak current limitMMC value of 4A in this demonstration.

To help this, try:

  • Increasing Peak current limitMMC and Continuous current limitMCC if possible
  • Reducing Acceleration limitCAL and/or Velocity limitCVL limits

Steps to do after tuning finished[edit | edit source]

  • Stop test stimulus by unticking Enable test stimulusTSE
  • Stop scope capture by unticking Continuously repeating capture
  • Undo all temporary changes made to settings
  • Save settings to drive memory by clicking Save settings on drive non-volatile memory button
  • Set preferred setpoint source Setpoint inputCRI, also consider the use of Setpoint smoothingCIS
  • If setpoint signal scaling is needed, adjust Setpoint multiplierMUL and Setpoint dividerDIV values. See Signal path of motor drive for explanation of velocity setpoint scale.

LED indicators[edit | edit source]

Warning: Display title "Argon LED indicators" overrides earlier display title "Argon parameterization".
Argon has four front panel led indicators which have dedicated indicating tasks:
  • LD1 SimpleMotion transmit led. Blinks when drive transmits data to bus.
  • LD2 SimpleMotion receive led. Blinks when drive receives data from bus.
  • LD3 Fault indicator
  • LD4 Motor control state indicator

How to read indications[edit | edit source]

  • LD1 and LD2, blink very briefly during data transmission. Due to short light pulses, these lights appear dimmer than other leds.
  • LD3 and LD4 have programmed blinking sequences. Sequences consists series of short (S) and long (L) light pulses. For example LLS means the led will blink two long flashs and then one short flash. After sequence there will be a pause before the sequence repeats.
  • LD3 and LD4 are independent and can show fault and motor state simultaneously. To easier reading sequence, cover one led with a thumb to be able to concentrate to one led.
  • LD3 and shows the first fault occurred if multiple fault states are active simultaneously.

List of all LD3 and LD4 sequences[edit | edit source]

To see animated images, view this Wiki page in a web browser with animations enabled.

Faults originated from I/O side of drive[edit | edit source]

Only LD3 is being controlled by these faults.

Fault reason LED sequence LED sequence as text
Hardware 3SLLS.gif SLLS
Program or memory 3SLSL.gif SLSL
Internal comm error (unable to establish comm) 3SLSS.gif SLSS
Internal comm error (in middle of operation) 3SSLL.gif SSLL
SimpleMotion communication 3LSSS.gif LSSS
Other/unknown 3LLSL.gif LLSL

Faults originated from GraniteCore side of drive[edit | edit source]

Only LD3 is being controlled by these faults.

Fault reason LED sequence LED sequence as text
Hardware 3LLSS.gif LLSS
Progral or memory 3LSLL.gif LSLL
Internal comm error (CRC) 3LSL.gif LSL
Initialization 3LSS.gif LSS
Over current 3SLL.gif SLL
Over temperature 3LSLS.gif LSLS
Over voltage 3SLS.gif SLS
Following error 3LS.gif LS
Under voltage 3SL.gif SL
Motion blocked or motor runaway 3SLL.gif SSL
Setpoint range exceeded 3LSSL.gif LSSL
Other/unknown, possibly configuration error such as motor mode Motor typeMT not selected 3SSSL.gif SSSL

Motor control states[edit | edit source]

Only LD4 is being controlled by these faults.

Status LED sequence LED sequence as text Motor output powered
Permanent stop (need device reset) 4LLS.gif LLS No
Fault stop (observe LD3 for reason) 4OFF.gif Off Depends on fault
Follow error recovery motion 4LS.gif LS Yes
Initializing 4SL.gif SL Yes
Homing 4LSS.gif LSS Yes
Run 4ON.gif On yes
Other/uncategorized (not any of above). For details, connect with Granity and see status bits. 4LLSS.gif LLSS No

Argon specifications & accessories[edit | edit source]

This page lists official functional, electrical and physical specifications of the ARGON Servo Drive.

Main functionality[edit | edit source]

Function Description
Servo motor drive Closed loop control of various types of servo motors by sinusoidal field oriented control with dead-time distortion correction and high dynamic range torque control.
  • Support over 97% of all the servo motors below 2 kW in the market
  • Synchronous AC & BLDC motors
    • Sinusoidal and trapezoidal commutated
    • SPM (Surface Permanent Magnet) and IPM (Internal Permanent Magnet) types
  • Brush DC motors
  • Linear motors
    • Iron core
    • Ironless (with external inductive filter)
Control modes
  • Torque control
  • Velocity/speed control
  • Position control
Setpoint types

See setpoint signal / reference inputs list

Closed loop Cascaded control loops (PIV):
  • Torque / current control, update frequency 17.5 kHz
  • Velocity control, update frequency 2.5 kHz
  • Position control, update frequency 2.5 kHz
Feed-forwards Feed-forwards working in velocity & position control modes:
  • Acceleration (inertia canceling) feed-forward
  • Velocity (friction canceling) feed-forward
Homing Integrated homing function for position control mode:
  • Sensorless hard-stop homing
  • Home switch search
  • Index pulse search
  • Soft position limits (eliminate limit switches)
Feedback devices See feedback devices list
Safety
  • Safe torque off with 3-way redundancy
  • Stopping motor on errors
    • Tracking error (velocity & position)
    • Over speed error
    • Limit switch
  • DC motor runaway prevention on feedback loss
  • Communication error detection
Protections
  • Over current
  • Short circuit (phase-to-phase)
  • I2t motor thermal protection
  • Over & under voltage
  • Over temperature
Power supply

Two power supply methods:

  • Integrated AC mains power supply: single phase 85 – 264 VAC 50/60 Hz, 0 – 16 A
  • Externally supplied 40 – 380 VDC
  • Additionally an external 24 VDC logic supply required
Motor output current
Commissioning
Compliance CE (LVD & EMC): EN 61800-5-1:2007 and IEC 61000-6-1:2005

Mechanical[edit | edit source]

Property Value Units
Dimensions (with wall mounting tabs)¹ 51×197×127 (W×H×D) mm
Dimensions (excluding wall mounting tabs)¹ 51×177×127 (W×H×D) mm
Weight 0.88 kg
Case materials Steel (cover), aluminum (heat sink)
Drawings Download-icon.png 2D (PDF), Download-icon.png 3D (IGES & STEP)

¹) Wall mounting tabs are fixed part of enclosure

Environment[edit | edit source]

Property Value Units
Operating temperature 10-70 °C
Storage temperature -30-90 °C
Humidity 0-95 non-condensing  %
Power dissipation 2-100¹ W

¹) Power dissipation is output current and input voltage related.

Power supply[edit | edit source]

Supply2 Input voltage Input current typ Input current max
Logic power 24 VDC +/- 10% 0.1 - 0.4 A 0.5 A
Motor power³ 85 - 264 VAC 50/60 Hz 0 - 16 A1 26 A1
704 - 380 VDC 0 - 16 A1 26 A1

1) Estimating true current or power consumption based on this table may be difficult as current demand typically varies greatly and and almost completely depends on motor load conditions.

2) Both logic and motor supplies are required.

3) Features internal inrush current limiter

4) Possible to use from 45 VDC upwards, however short circuit protection feature is lost below 70 VDC.

Motor output[edit | edit source]

Property Value Units Remarks
Supported motors AC, BLDC, DC, Linear Permanent magnet motors only
Continuous output current 0-12.5  A (peak value of sine) User settable limit
Peak output current 0-18 A (peak value of sine) Duration 1 sec, then returned to continuous limit. User settable current limit.
Maximum effective motor phase output voltage
  • 3-phase AC motors: VAC-supply*0.884 V RMS (phase-to-phase)
  • DC motors: VAC-supply*1.24 VDC
  • I.e. at 230 VAC supply, the maximum three-phase motor output voltage is 203 V RMS phase-to-phase
  • I.e. at 230 VAC supply, the maximum DC motor output voltage is 285 V
Switching frequency 17.5 kHz
Maximum modulation depth 88  % Maximum effective output is 88% of HV DC bus voltage.
Torque control bandwidth (typ.) 1-3.3 kHz Motor coil dependent
Torque control cycle time 57.1 µs
Position & velocity control cycle time 400 µs
Power conversion efficiency 90-95  % Under typical conditions
Motor inductance range @ 230 VAC 1.4-25 mH
Motor inductance range @ 115 VAC 0.7-25 mH
Motor power range 0.05 - 1.5 kW
AC commutation frequency 0-400 Hz

Regenerative resistor[edit | edit source]

Property Value Units
Maximum current 6 A
Series fuse 8 A
Minimum allowed resistance @ 230 VAC supply 63 Ω
Minimum allowed resistance @ 115 VAC supply 35 Ω
Resistor power dissipation 0-2400¹ W

¹) Power dissipation depends on how much system's kinetic energy is directed to the resistor

Feedback devices[edit | edit source]

Status of feedback device support[edit | edit source]

Feedback device type Status Electrical interface
Quadrature incremental encoder Standard feature Differential 3-5.5V (RS422), Single ended 3-5.5V (CMOS,TTL,open collector)
Hall sensors Standard feature Single ended 3-5.5V (CMOS,TTL,open collector). Differential signals accepted.
Analog SinCos encoder Standard feature 1 V p-p signal, 16X, 64X or 256X resolution interpolation factor (user selectable)2, max 500 kHz input frequency
Resolver/synchro Supported, with adapter 10 kHz excitation
Serial SSI encoder Not supported¹ RS422/RS485
Serial BiSS encoder Not supported¹ RS422/RS485
Tachogenerator Not supported¹

1) Supported by hardware. Argon is supported as-is, no new features will be added to it. Custom firmware features are possible with the Argon open source firmware.

2) The final resolution will be 4*line_count*interpolation_factor. I.e. with 1000 lines/electrical cycles per revolution SinCos encoder, the supported resolutions are 64000, 256000 and 1024000 counts per revolution. SinCos encoder can be also used without interpolation (4*line_count resolution).

Quadrature encoder electrical properties[edit | edit source]

Property Value Units Remarks
Encoder count rate 0-4 MHz After 4x decoding, digitally filtered
Supply voltage 4.8-5.2 V Supplied from drive
Supply current 0-500 mA Supplied from drive

SinCos encoder electrical properties[edit | edit source]

Property Value Units Remarks
Input frequency (16X interpolation) 0-640 kHz
Input frequency (64X interpolation) 0-160 kHz
Input frequency (256X interpolation) 0-40 kHz
Supply voltage 4.8-5.2 V Supplied from drive
Supply current 0-500 mA Supplied from drive
SinCos signal voltage 0.8-1.2 Vp-p

Setpoint signal / reference inputs[edit | edit source]

Setpoint signal type Status Electrical interface
Analog Standard feature
  • Up to +/-10V or any lower voltage range
  • +/-10V (bipolar) and 0-10V with polarity input (unipolar) supported
Pulse and direction Standard feature Up to 4 MHz step rate, 5V signaling
Quadrature Standard feature Up to 4 MHz count rate, 5V signaling
PWM Standard feature
  • 1-30 kHz PWM carrier frequency (fPWM), ~3 kHz for optimal operation.
  • Single signal (no polarity input), zero setpoint at 50% duty
  • PWM signal is sampled at 60MHz timer thus reading resolution is 60MHz/fPWM
  • PWM+Polarity input mode available on request
Serial communication Standard feature SimpleMotion V2 real-time serial bus with open source SDK. Connect through RS485 or USB.
Stand-alone operation or custom setpoint signal User implementable May be implemented in the Argon open source firmware
EtherCAT Planned Realized with add-on board

See also:

Inputs / outputs[edit | edit source]

List of I/O's[edit | edit source]

J5 I/O connector pin groups. In addition to J5, J2 has digital I/O's for enable and STO
  • Isolated digital inputs (4 channels) - used for limit & home switches and clear faults signal ¹
  • Isolated digital outputs (4 channels) - used for status indication ¹
  • Differential analog inputs (2 channels) - used as Analog setpoint ¹
  • Differential digital inputs (2 channels) - used for pulse/direction or second encoder ¹
  • Digital inputs (3 channels) - used for safe torque off and drive enable
  • Digital output (1 channel) - used for motor solenoid brake

¹) Functions may be altered by modifying the Argon open source firmware

Electrical characteristics[edit | edit source]

For detailed specifications, see I/O electrical interfacing and pinout & wiring.

Property Typical value Maximum rating Units
Protections (all I/O lines) overvoltage, ESD, short circuit, reverse polarity
Isolated digital input (GPIx) logic 1 voltage 4.5-24 25.5 V
Isolated digital input (GPIx) logic 0 voltage 0-1.3 V
Isolated digital output (GPOx) voltage 0-24 25.5 V
Isolated digital output (GPOx) current drive capability ¹,² 5-20 40 mA
High speed digital input (HSINx) voltage range 2.7-5.5 6.0 V
Analog input input (ANAINx) voltage range ±10 ±25 vs GND V
Analog input input (ANAINx) resolution 12 bits
Enable input input logic 1 voltage 20-24 25.5 V
STO input input logic 1 voltage 20-24 25.5 V
Motor brake voltage 12-24 25.5 V
Motor brake load current 0-0.5 0.7 A

¹) Actual output drive capability may vary from unit to unit. Minimum guaranteed capability is 5 mA.

²) Do not exceed GPO safe operating area (SOA). Loading GPOx pin is within SOA when following equation is true: Voltage_drop_over_GPOx_pin_pair*Load_current < 0.1W. Example: if voltage over GPOx pins is 5V and current 0.01A, then 5V*0.01A=0.05W which is less than 0.1W so the operation is safe. The recommended practice is to drive only high impedance circuits with GPO to avoid overloading.

Communication[edit | edit source]

Property Value Units
Communication protocol SimpleMotion V2
Default bitrate 460800 BPS
Maximum number of Argon devices chained in a single bus 15 pcs
Command throughput Up to 10000 Commands/s

Safety[edit | edit source]

Feature Properties Remarks
Safe torque off
  • 3-way redundancy with 2 physical STO inputs
  1. Cut AC input by safety relay @ STO1 input
  2. Cut power stage gate voltage @ STO2 input
  3. Disable power stage by software @ STO2 input
STO1 safe up to 6 A AC RMS input current. Not operational if AC input > 6 A RMS AC or if DC voltage is being supplied to drive through L & N terminals or VP & VN terminals.
Control error detection
  • Tracking error (velocity & position)
  • Over speed error
  • Limit switch
  • DC motor runaway prevention on feedback loss
  • Communication error
Electrical safety
  • Galvanic isolation between I/O side and power side
  • Internal fuse on AC input
  • MOV based transient overvoltage protection
  • Earth leakage current typ. < 0.5 mA
  • ESD, short circuit, reverse polarity protection on all pins
  • Surge protection on AC & DC power inputs
Galvanic isolation on J1, J2, J3 and J5 connectors against J4 with live AC mains voltages
Overload safety
  • Over current
  • Short circuit (phase-to-phase)
  • I2t motor thermal protection
  • Over & under voltage
  • Drive over temperature

Warnings[edit | edit source]

Mating connectors and accessories[edit | edit source]

Warning: Display title "Argon mating connectors and accessories" overrides earlier display title "Argon LED indicators".

This page lists available mating connectors, accessories and spare parts for Argon (servo drive). Most parts or equivalents are available from large number of distributors. Feel free to extend this list.

Connectors[edit | edit source]

J1 connector[edit | edit source]

Description Manufacturer Part number Distributors and order codes
PLUG, D, SOLDER, 15WAY MULTICOMP 5501-15PA-02-F1

Accessories[edit | edit source]

Description Manufacturer Part number Distributors and order codes
D-SUB BACKSHELL, 15WAY MH CONNECTORS DPPK15-GREY-K

J2 connector[edit | edit source]

Cable assemblies[edit | edit source]

Cable used for J2 should be shielded (S/FTP or FTP, not UTP) type.

Description Manufacturer Part number Distributors and order codes
Premium patch cable 0.5m VIDEK 3962-0.5 Farnell 1525999
Premium patch cable 1m VIDEK 3962-1
Premium patch cable 2m VIDEK 3962-2 Farnell 1525753
Premium patch cable 5m VIDEK 3962-5 Farnell 1525755
Premium patch cable 10m VIDEK 3962-10
Shielded patch cable 0.5m VIDEK 2992-0.5 Farnell 1517504
Shielded patch cable 1m VIDEK 2992-1
Shielded Patch cable 2m VIDEK 2992-2 Farnell 1517506
Shielded patch cable 5m VIDEK 2992-5 Farnell 1517509
Shielded patch cable 10m VIDEK 2992-10
Shielded patch cable 0.5m Assman A-MCSP-80005/B-R Digikey A-MCSP-80005/B-R
Shielded patch cable 1m Assman A-MCSP-80005/Y-R Digikey A-MCSP-80010/Y-R
Shielded patch cable 2m Assman A-MCSP-80020/Y-R Digikey A-MCSP-80020/Y-R
Shielded patch cable 3m Assman A-MCSP-80050/Y-R Digikey A-MCSP-80030/Y-R
Shielded patch cable 5m Assman A-MCSP-80050/Y-R Digikey A-MCSP-80050/Y-R
Shielded patch cable 10m Assman A-MCSP-80050/Y-R Digikey A-MCSP-80100/Y-R

Accessories[edit | edit source]

Description Manufacturer Part number Distributors and order codes
RJ45 break-out board with DIN rail fixutre (convert RJ45 to screw terminals). Helpful for wiring STO and Enable wires. Camden boss CIM/RJ45 Farnell 2211819

J3 connector[edit | edit source]

This part is included with Argon package.

Description Manufacturer Part number Distributors and order codes
3 pole 0.2" pitch terminal On Shore Technology Inc OSTTJ035153

J4 connector[edit | edit source]

This part is included with Argon package.

Description Manufacturer Part number Distributors and order codes
10 pole 0.2" pitch terminal On Shore Technology Inc OSTTJ105153

J5 connector[edit | edit source]

Example of DIN rail attachable IDC terminal block/breakout board.

Mating connector type is 0.1" pitch 26 pin IDC ribbon cable socket, see example (pdf).

Description Manufacturer Part number Distributors and order codes
SOCKET, IDC, 2.54MM, 26WAY AMPHENOL T812126A100CEU
SOCKET, IDC, WITH S/RELIEF, 26WAY MULTICOMP MC6FD026-30P1

Accessories[edit | edit source]

Description Manufacturer Part number Distributors and order codes
IDC terminal block, 26WAY Camden boss CIM/202426W-IDCS

Heat sinks & cooling & high power application[edit | edit source]

Description Manufacturer Part number Distributors and order codes
Half brick heatsink. Up to 4 pcs of standard half brick heat sinks can be fitted to a drive to improve cooling and increase maximum power output. Install with thermal grease. Note: M3 mounting screws must not reach through the 5 mm thick heat sink of the drive! Wakefield 518-95AB
Fuse, anti-surge, 6.3A. A replacement for original fuse in the drive. See replacing Argon fuse. SCHURTER 0001.2512 Farnell 1360860
Fuse, anti-surge, 10A. A higher power alternative fuse. See replacing Argon fuse. SCHURTER 0001.2514 Farnell 1360862
Fuse, anti-surge, 16A. A higher power alternative fuse. See replacing Argon fuse. SCHURTER 0034.3129 Farnell 1360824

Electromagnetic interference filtering[edit | edit source]

Description Manufacturer Part number Distributors and order codes
EMI suppression core for low frequency band Laird LFB159079-000 Digikey 240-2281-ND
EMI suppression core for medium frequency band Laird 28B0616-000 Digikey 240-2306-ND
Power line filter for up to 12A AC input current, FN2090 series - low cost Schaffner FN2090-12-06 Digikey 817-1332-ND
Power line filter for up to 16A AC input current, FN241x series - high performance Schaffner FN2412-16-44 Digikey 817-1358-ND
Power line filter for up to 12A AC input current, FN350 series - optimal for single phase motor drives Schaffner FN350-12-29 Digikey 817-1130-ND
Power line filter for up to 20A AC input current, FN350 series - optimal for single phase motor drives Schaffner FN350-20-29 Digikey 817-1131-ND

Braking resistors[edit | edit source]

Description Manufacturer Part number Distributors and order codes
82 ohm 250W braking resistor for 220-240VAC installation Tyco Tyco HSC 250 82R
47 ohm 250W braking resistor for 110-120VAC installation Tyco Tyco HSC 250 47RJ Farnell 1619349
100 ohm 150W braking resistor for 220-240VAC installation TE Connectivity 1630012-1
100 ohm 150W braking resistor for 220-240VAC installation Arcol HS150100RJ

Warning: Display title "Argon user guidebook" overrides earlier display title "Argon mating connectors and accessories".


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